Wednesday, August 26, 2020
The History and Invention of the Jet Engine Despite the fact that the development of the fly motor can be followed back to the aeolipile made around 150 B.C., Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both perceived just like the co-designers of the fly motor as we probably am aware it today, despite the fact that each worked independently and remained unaware of the others work. Fly impetus is characterized essentially as any progress ahead brought about by the retrogressive launch of a rapid fly of gas or fluid. On account of air travel and motors, fly impetus implies that the machine itself is controlled by stream fuel. While Von Ohain is viewed as the originator of the main operational turbojet motor, Whittle was first to enroll a patent for his schematics of a model, in 1930. Von Ohain got a patent for his model in 1936, and his fly was the first to fly in 1939. Shaves took off without precedent for 1941. While von Ohain and Whittle might be the recognized dads of current stream motors, numerous granddads preceded them, controlling them as they made ready for the fly motors of today. Early Jet Propulsion Concepts The aeolipileÃ¢ of 150 BCE was made as an oddity and never utilized for any commonsense mechanical reason. Truth be told, it wouldnt be until the innovation of the firecrackers rocket in the thirteenth century by Chinese craftsmen that a commonsense use for stream impetus was first actualized. In 1633, Ottoman Lagari Hasan Ãâ¡elebi utilized a cone-molded rocket controlled by fly drive to fly out of sight and a lot of wings to float it back to a fruitful landing. In any case, since rockets are wasteful at low speeds for general avionics, this utilization of stream impetus was basically a one-time stunt. Regardless, his exertion was remunerated with a situation in the Ottoman Army. Between the 1600s and World War II, numerous researchers tried different things with half breed motors to move airplane. Many utilized one of the cylinder motors structures including air-cooled and fluid cooled inline and turning and static spiral motors as the force hotspot for airplane. Sir Frank Whittles Turbojet Concept Sir Frank Whittle was an English flying specialist and pilot who joined the Royal Air Force as a student, later turning into an aircraft tester in 1931. Shave was just 22 when he originally thought to utilize a gas turbine motor to control a plane. The youthful official attempted ineffectively to acquire official help for the investigation and advancement of his thoughts yet was at last compelled to seek after his exploration on his own drive. He got his first patent on turbojet impetus in January 1930. Equipped with this patent, Whittle again looked for subsidizing to build up a model; this time effectively. He started development of his first motor in 1935 a solitary stage divergent blower coupled to a solitary stage turbine. What was intended to be just a research center test rig was effectively seat tried in April 1937, viably showing the possibility of the turbojet idea. Force Jets Ltd. the firm with which Whittle was related gotten an agreement for a Whittle motor known as the W1 on July 7, 1939. In February 1940, the Gloster Aircraft Company was picked to build up the Pioneer, the little motor airplane the W1 motor was reserved to control; the notable first trip of the Pioneer occurred on May 15, 1941. The advanced turbojet motor utilized today in numerous British and American airplane depends on the model created by Whittle. Dr. Hans von Ohains Continuous Cycle Combustion Concept Hans von Ohain was a German plane planner who acquired his doctorate in material science at the University of GÃ£ ¶ttingen in Germany, later turning into the lesser partner to Hugo Von Pohl, executive of the Physical Institute at the college. At that point, von Ohain was exploring another sort of airplane motor that didn't require a propeller. Just 22 years of age when he initially imagined the possibility of a ceaseless cycle burning motor in 1933, von Ohain protected a fly impetus motor structure in 1934 fundamentally the same as in idea to that of Sir Whittle, yet unique in inside game plan. Upon the common proposal of Hugo von Pohl, Von Ohain joined German airplane manufacturer Ernst Heinkel, at the time looking for help with new plane drive structures, in 1936. He proceeded with improvement of his fly impetus ideas, effectively seat testing one of his enginesÃ¢ in September 1937. Heinkel structured and built a little airplane known as the Heinkel He178, to fill in as a testbed for this new drive framework, which flew just because on August 27, 1939. Von Ohain proceeded to build up a second, improved stream motor known asÃ¢ the He S.8A, which was first flown on April 2, 1941.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Previous United States Attorney General Ramsey Clark wrote in the New York Times, Ã¢â¬Å"A right isn't what somebody gives you; however what nobody can take away.Ã¢â¬ It is in this vein a nation drafts enactment to secure the privileges of their occupants. In the United States there is the Bill of Rights, which comprises of a preface and the initial ten corrections to the United States Constitution, 1787 . The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the initial segment of the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 . Both of these records accommodate the rights and opportunities that the two nations see as unavoidable to their individual populaces. This is the place the similitude between them closes. These records are limitlessly extraordinary. They were created in various hundreds of years and accordingly have various accentuations. One key contrast between the two records is the manner by which they treat criminal law and the rights appended to an examination. Another fascinating correlation is the thing that the two reports don't examine. In Canada, if an individual is confined they are required to be educated regarding their established right to a lawyer in understanding to Section 10(b) of the contract and SCR R versus Therens 1985. The judgment peruses: Ã¢â¬Å"Where a prisoner is required to give proof which might be implicating and where refusal to agree is culpable as a criminal offence,Ã¢â¬ ¦ s. 10(b) forces an obligation not to call upon the prisoner to give that proof without first illuminating him regarding his s. 10(b) rights and giving him a sensible chance and time to hold and educate counsel.Ã¢â¬ In the United States, a detaineeÃ¢â¬â¢s right to board falls under revision six to the constitution . Boss Justice WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s report peruses: Ã¢â¬Å"The indictment may not utilize proclamations, regardless of whether exculpatory or inculpatory, originating from custodial cross examination of the litigant except if it shows the utilization of procedural protections powerful to make sure about the benefit against self-implication . . . Concerning the procedural protections to be utilized . . . the accompanying measures are required. Before any scrutinizing, the individual must be cautioned that he has a privilege to remain silent,Ã¢ that any announcement he makes might be utilized as proof against him, and that he has an option to the nearness of a lawyer, either held or appointed.Ã¢â¬ The contrast between the subtleties of these two thoughts is extraordinary. The Charter makes the perusing of the rights obligatory preceding whatever may be implicating. This incorporates line ups, breathalyzers, and so forth . In the United States Miranda just must be perused once the individual is authority, under cross examination or capture. Miranda is the slang term given to the rights that the detainer is obliged to discuss to the prisoner before their confinement. It starts with the lines put on the map by cop appears, Ã¢â¬Å"You reserve the option to stay quiet. Anything you do or say can and will be utilized against you in an official courtroom . . . Ã¢â¬ In Canada, since we have no Fifth Amendment law the prisoner shouldn't be cautioned against self implication. Additionally, in Canada, after the recitation of the rights, the prisoner should be inquired as to whether they comprehend and on the off chance that they need to call a legal advisor now. These distinctions happen in view of the idea of the two archives. The Bill of Rights was halfway a response to hostile to federalist protests that the constitution provided for much capacity to the government. It was not composed with a similar thinking ahead that was placed into the Charter. Equity Lamer recommends that the distinctions rise up out of the extensiveness that should be consolidated into an archive of the contract assortment . This is seen in different segments of the two records also. The fourth amendment states, Ã¢â¬Å"The right of individuals to be secure in their people, houses, papers, and impacts, against irrational hunts and seizures, will not be violated.Ã¢â¬ The Charter states in s. 8, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone has the option to be secure against preposterous inquiry or seizure.Ã¢â¬ This arrangement of s. 8 is expansive and contingent just to the arrangements of s. 7 and the standards of crucial equity. Is the body secured by this right? Does look incorporate both body and spot? The eighth amendment states, Ã¢â¬Å"nor pitiless and bizarre disciplines inflicted.Ã¢â¬ S. 12 uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"subjectedÃ¢â¬ . The thing that matters is that S. 12 can be applied to issues other then criminal discipline, as observed in Rodriguez v. English Colombia  3. S.C.R. The archives were composed at totally different occasions and for altogether different purposes. Out of this emerge numerous distinctions. The Bill of Rights has a long history caught with that of the American Constitution. It was the counter federalists assault on the American Constitution. Patrick Henry told the Virginia Convention, Ã¢â¬Å"What can benefit your probable, nonexistent adjusts, your rope-moving, chain-shaking, silly perfect checks and contrivances.Ã¢â¬ They requested an increasingly brief constitution that unmistakably spread out the privileges of the individuals and the confinements of the administration. James Madison wrote in his journal, Ã¢â¬Å"that such crucial proverbs of free Government would be a decent ground for an intrigue to the feeling of network against potential persecution and would check the motivations of intrigue and passion.Ã¢â¬ The Bill of Rights that Madison passed depended intensely upon The Virginia Declaration of Rights. The Virginia Declaration was an archive that was composed during the British occupation. Thomas Jefferson drew intensely upon it for The Declaration of Independence. Since it was composed during the hour of persecution of the British it explicitly balances the then present complaints. Is the issue of quartering a solider in your home settled time such a going ahead, that it is tended to in the Bill of Rights? There is no such arrangement in the Charter. A considerable lot of the rights ensured were those that were evacuated by the British. The British constrained ability to speak freely, opportunity of get together and opportunity of the press. These rights are attested in the main change. To forestall transformation, the British constrained the option to remain battle ready that is presently secured in the subsequent alteration. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was composed very nearly 200 years after the Bill of Rights. It supplanted the generally ineffectual Bill of Rights, 1960 that solitary influenced the laws made after its origin. It was additionally a bill so it could be adjusted by an Act of Parliament. The late seventies, mid eighties were a period of improvement and change. The nation was all the while reeling from the FLQ emergency and was pained by the chance of Quebec isolating from the remainder of Canada. At the point when Pierre Treudeau needed to repatriate the constitution from Britain, he experienced substantial oppositionÃ¢ from the regions, principally Quebec. Tredeau then included the despite condition, or s. 33 of the contract to mollify their interests. What is viewed as the Achilles heel, the defect in the establishment of the sanction is a consequence of the political weights of the period where it was composed. The timeframe additionally greatly affected the extension and nature of the sanction. During the Treudeau years society started a progression that is proceeding with today. The privileges of the individual turned out to be increasingly more significant over those of the network. This is seen to the rights allowed in the Charter that were not in the Bill of Rights. Portability rights and correspondence rights were not explicitly accommodated in the Bill of Rights. The distinctions in the timeframes have made archives with an altogether different core interest. The American Bill of Rights ensures the states against the oppression and persecution of the government. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms ensures singular rights and those of minority bunches against enslavement by the larger part. The Bill of Rights and the Charter don't accommodate numerous rights that we see as major. The two archives don't make reference to the word protection or accommodate meanings of desires for security . They let the courts confirm that intelligent of society. It took a progression of milestone decisions in 1973 for the USSC to characterize what Ã¢â¬Å"a sensible desire for protection Ã¢â¬ is. The Canadian Supreme Court did likewise with the primary Charter difficulties, including Hunter v. Southam Inc. what's more, others. The Bill of Rights doesn't specify God, while the Charter starts with Ã¢â¬Å"Whereas Canada is established upon the rules that perceive the matchless quality of God and the standard of law.Ã¢â¬ This makes a total detachment of Church and State in the Bill of Rights, while accommodating strict schools in the Charter. The Charter doesn't give a privilege to property, financial rights or work rights. This implies the privileges of associations to deal altogether, the rights to pay for seized property and the option to frame associations are not ensured aside from by demonstration of parliament. In the Bill of Rights it says, Ã¢â¬Å"nor will private property be taken for open use, without justÃ¢ compensation.Ã¢â¬ The Charter has Section One, a lawful device by which the Supreme Court can restrain the privileges of the individuals. It gives that no privilege is outright and is dependent upon sensible limits that can be legitimized in a free and popularity based society. The Bill of Rights has no such apparatus. Actually, the main revision starts, Ã¢â¬Å"Congress will make no law regarding . . .Ã¢â¬ This outcomes in the USSC ensuring the privileges of Neo-Nazis to march through an area of holocaust survivors and taking into consideration the development of strict religions. The Charter likewise has s.33 as referenced previously. The territories reserve the option to quit government laws. In Quebec, all laws start, Ã¢â¬Å"Notwithstanding the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.Ã¢â¬ The Bill of Rights has no such area. This is a consequence of the American Civil War. During the Civil War, the South prevailing from the Union since they picked
Monday, August 17, 2020
A Quick Update Well, Im back from Atlantic City and have 3 million things to do in the next 2 days, which you math geniuses out there should know works out to 1.5 million things per day. Which is why this entry is short. Sanja said: I think I would just die if I were you No, really, just to stand there, watch some kids and cant do all the cool stuff Being a lifeguard is cool, but triples look way cooler :) Come on, you dont think we take the slides down when we switch shifts? Way cooler than taking the stairs. Plus, the amusement park across the street (you can see it in the background of some of the pictures I posted) and the waterpark are jointly owned- so we go on all the rides in both parks for free on our lunch breaks. Besides, I get to do awesome stuff no one else gets to do, like climbing up the slides on foot when people get stuck. =P Anonymous said: umm, You do realize that General Relativity is a very advanced physics course. Theres a difference between hard and advanced. The only prereqs for the class are 8.01 (Mechanics) and 18.02 (Multivariable Calc), both of which I have taken. I dont think the class is going to be easy, but it starts at the beginning. It doesnt really matter anyway. Sadly, Im pretty sure I wont be taking it this term. =( But more on my actual class schedule later. For now, I have to stuff my entire life into boxes.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Engaging In Art: Are You Talking To Me Ã¢â¬Å"Savannah Civil Right MuseumÃ¢â¬ Civil Rights have been the long and dreadful fight against desegregation in many places of the world. Throughout its hard fight many people captured the turmoil that they were faced with by painting, some sculpted, and most photographed. Many reason for this art platform to take place was to create a visual symbol of what we know as the resistance time period. Artist wanted to have the feel of empowerment and most of all feeling liberation. Recently I visit the Savannah Civil right Museum to share some of the major history that was capture in the during the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s time err. The museum was founded by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Civil Rights Movement. It has recently been rename to The Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum to honor Dr. Ralph Mark Gilbert. Each piece in the museum carryÃ¢â¬â¢s a huge amount of information that explains the history and the time periods of which i t was done. One particular piece that caught my eye was the amazing paint by Jacob Lawrence- Daybreak: A Time to Rest. This art piece is by far one of the best of what I saw at the museum. It tells a story of how Harriet Tubman led many slaves to freedom. Each painting walks you through the time and place of what each movement. The Civil Rights movement touches many lives. To capture the terrific and restless movement of what civil right leaders endure was exceptional. JacobShow MoreRelatedEssay on Law Test Questions5408 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesconsumers get better products. Hey, even though what the businesses are doing is kind of cruel, the ultimate outcome is for the goodÃ¢â¬âwhat could be wrong with that? Chris disagrees with James: No way will youll get me to go along with that analysis, James, right is right and wrong is wrong. If a businessman is trying to run a competitor out of business, the intentions are all wrongÃ¢â¬âI dont care about end results. Philosophica lly, what is the best description of the arguments of James and Chris respectivelyRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesCredits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Copyright Ã © 2013, 2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
To begin, the first fact I learned about Buddhism is that each tradition and time period had a different stories about the Buddha, meaning the story is constantly changing in a way. It was fascinating in many ways to learn that they believe telling the story of The Buddha is a good way to learn about Buddhism, therefore, teaching people about Buddha allows them to learn his teachings. Because they believe he is such a key point to understanding Buddhism they study about how in the beginning of his life he was shielded from any and everything bad. He only saw the good in life for years, until he began taking trips outside of his palace. Here he found out about old age, sickness and death, discovering that this was an inevitable part of life even for himself. However, they also believe that after he finds these facts out he then discovers that there were people who committed themselves to a spiritual side seeking to escape all of these awful facts of life. So, he decides to leave his l ife of luxury, but as he is leaving Mara tempts him to stay and essentially rule the world. But, according to Buddhism he resisted and left the world he had know his whole life, he cute his hair and put on the robes of those who seek enlightenment, he gives up everything in order to gain more from his life. Buddhist believe that this was the beginning of his journey, he personally does not have any teachings yet, nor does he have an understand of the world as of yet. He does, however, recognizeShow MoreRelatedThe Tale Of Genji By Murasaki Shikibu877 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesideas. 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In the eleventh century C.E., King Anawratha established The Myanmas kingdom, it was at this time that he converted to Theravada Buddhism, despite a large Tantric Buddhist population in the kingdom. From then on, Myanmar has been known as a Theravada Buddhist country. As with most religionsRead MoreEssay on Asian Art Museum in San Francisco1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAsian Art Museum in San Francisco During the first week of September, I made a trip with a friend to theÃ Asian Art Museum in San Francisco. Every first Sunday of the month, admission into the museum is free. It is my first time to visit there and I was most impressed with the huge number of Buddhas on display.Ã Most of the pieces are in excellent condition. It is amazing 600-year-old pottery and all these stone statues of Buddha that looks like it was made yesterday. What really brings thisRead MoreReflections On The Nature And Study Of Buddhism1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageson the Nature and Study of BuddhismÃ¢â¬ , chapter fourteen of BuddhismÃ¢â¬âThe Ebook, by Charles S. Prebish and Damien Keown does exactly that. This part of the text explains BuddhismÃ¢â¬â¢s spread to western civilization and how Americans altered it, its evolution into an academic discipline in America, and the role of technology in the discipline of Buddhist Studies. On page 288 of the text, writer Stephen Batchelor describes the western hemisphereÃ¢â¬â¢s first encounter with Buddhism as an Ã¢â¬Å"Awakening of the WestRead MoreThe Goals of Hinduism and Buddhism Essay1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2. Hinduism and Buddhism are traditions that originated from the Vedic sacrifice practice, and they share a common foundation in their view of existence. What are the similarities, and very importantly, the differences in their respective focuses and goals? Also included in this topic: For a time, Buddhism became a dominant tradition in much of India, but then Hinduism rose to become the dominant tradition. There are relatively few Buddhists in India today, especially in comparison to the number
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Dana Epstein Professor Morris ENG 2850 TR54C October 13, 2009 The Illusions That Define Us: Appearance versus Reality Ã¢â¬Å"Men in general judge more from appearances than from reality. All men have eyes, but few have the gift of penetration. Ã¢â¬ That quote by Nicollo Machiavelli is simply defined as, what you see is not always what you get and few men have the gift of being able to see through an appearance. We will write a custom essay sample on Tartuffe: Truth and Religious Teachings or any similar topic only for you Order Now In Tartuffe and Monkey, appearances are far from reality in many instances. Even though both texts were written in different milieus both societies focus strongly on religion and material value. Both characters are deceived by power, desires and the need to prove themselves. Spiritually is used to enlighten and religious teachings help Monkey to see the truth. However, Orgon needs to trust his senses because spirituality is used to deceive. The realization that is difficult for the audience to distinguish the difference between appearance and reality in both stories is very evident. In Tartuffe, Orgon is deceived by the holy zealous Tartuffe solely based on his false piety of religion. His need for power and prestige blinds his ability to see the truth about Tartuffe.He is so enthralled by Tartuffe because he enriches Orgon with power by appealing to his desires. Tartuffe is claiming to be a traditional figure of authority by presenting himself as a holy man and Orgon foolishly goes against everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling towards Tartuffe and falls for his act. The audience is not told that Tartuffe is a liar or hypocrite but, through his words and the actions that follow, it allows the audience to differentiate between the lying Tartuffe and the honest family. In the first scene, Dorine states her feelings toward Tartuffe. You see him as a saint. IÃ¢â¬â¢m far less awed; In fact, I see right through him. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a fraud. Ã¢â¬ Tartuffe, the hypocritical fraud, does no appear until act three, allowing the audience to see the other characters as honest witnesses to Tartuffe lies. As soon as he arrives, he over zealously informs Dorine that she is showing too much cleavage. His actions are seen as forced rather than genuine. Orgon is so blinded by Tartuffe that he does not even believe his own son when he tells him that Tartuffe is trying to seduce his wife Elmire.Orgon responds with Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, you deceitful boy, how dare you try to stain his purity with so foul a lie? Ã¢â¬ Orgon finally needs to perform a scientific experiment by hiding under the table to actually hear Tartuffe try and seduce his wife. OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s mistake is that he needed to trust his senses rather then his spirituality and need to prove himself. His desire to be all powerful Orgon and control his childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives ended him in a bind where all his belongings were in the hands of Tartuffe. Orgon was deceived by religion and his desires to be all knowing and all powerful. The appearance of a Ã¢â¬Å"holy manÃ¢â¬ that Tartuffe presented completely blinded the reality that he was a con artist. Orgon chose to go against the intuitions of those he loves and trusts and is left struggling to define his own reality and truth in what spirituality means to him. The religious teachings and spirituality in Tartuffe leave Orgon to pick up the pieces of his fallen life and proves that trusting his senses was the key to defining reality. On the contrary, the religious teachings in Monkey help him to see the truth and define reality.MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s journey consisted of many encounters where appearance is deceiving. The evil wizard is one of the most deceiving characters throughout the story. Through changing his appearance, he is able to disguise his true self as a lion of the gods to complete his task in teaching the king a lesson for being unkind to a beggar who was asking for help. The evil wizard pretended to help the king of the Crow-Cock Kingdom but instead shifts his form into the king and steals his throne. When Monkey confronts the evil wizard about this change he then again shifts his form into Tripitaka so that Monkey cannot attack him.Through these appearances, the evil wizard was able to hide the reality that he was truly a lion on a mission. Though the evil wizard was one of the most manipulative characters, Pigsy and the Dragon both deceived reality with their appearances. Pigsy fooled those of the woman he married into believing he was a hard working young man, but once his true identity of a pig was known they soon became fearful of him. Another instance was when the white dragon was punished for eating the white horse so he was then transformed into TripitakaÃ¢â¬â¢s white horse for the journey.The appearances that deceived were all to complete their own missions and ultimately teach a lesson. Throughout the stories Monkey by Wu Ch`eng-en and Tartuffe by Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Moliere, appearance versus reality is a key theme. The audience can see the demise that Tartuffe had in store for Orgon all along. As for Monkey, the reality throughout the story is layered between illusions and the supernatural, reality and truth. Both characters were deceived by opposite forces in which the quest for power and to meet their desires blinded their inability to decipher truth from false. How to cite Tartuffe: Truth and Religious Teachings, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
The Value of HRM to Business -Performance Related Pay Word Count: 2942 Table of Content 1Introduction3 2Literature Review4 3Case Study8 3. 1Case 1-Performance Related Pay: What Makes a Successful Scheme? 8 3. 2Case 2 Performance related pay: a case study of a small business. 10 4Analysis12 5Conclusion17 Reference18 Introduction Human capital plays a vital role in providing the organisation with a valuable competitive advantage; in addition a reward and pay system concerning the employment relationship, is often viewed as a key method in obtaining maximum human capital, and thus a central part of managing a business. A reward and pay system that ensures employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ contributions to the organisation is measured by both financial and non-financial mean (Armstrong, 2007). Since it is crucial to the success of a business, selecting the most correct and appropriate reward scheme seems a part and parcel of attracting and in order to retain employees and survive in an environment with ever so fierce competition. In fact, there are numbers of reward systems, such as skill based pay and profit related pay. In this essay, we aim at mainly evaluating and analysing the value of performance related pay (PRP) in organisations. Literature Review From the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, PRP rapidly developed as a motivator and way to create performance-oriented cultures, and became a popular pay scheme in organisations (Armstrong, 2002). And because of the horizontal trend of the organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ structure there will be less opportunity to motivate employees through promotion and then pay for reward system occupied an important role as a motivator (Conyon et al. 2001). Based on the IPD (1999)Ã¢â¬â¢s survey, approximately75% of respondents felt PRP had a positive impact on both individual and organisational performance. PRP is a method of reward, where the employees can receive an increase in remuneration wholly, or partly, through the individual performance assessment (ACAS, 1996:8). It serves as a kind of financial incentive to motivate employees to work harder, perform at their optimum level in light of creating higher productivity. There are many definitions for PRP. Mabey and Salaman (1997:211) puts it as an organisation that achieve its objectives through clear internal communications that is related to performance to the employees, constantly checking their objectives and to reward employees that perform well and made positive contribution to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. The definition highlights PRPÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning features. PRP is used by a company in order to able to recruit and retain suitable employees that fit into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture as well as indirectly inform underperforming employee to either perform better or leave. In addition, it is used to promote the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value such as performance driven, cost conscious and adaptable. This is done through making individuals committed and ensuring they understand and fully aware of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objective and business plan. The assumption of PRP is that individuals are money driven thus if they receive more pay, they will perform better (Kessler and Purcell, 1993; Armstrong, 2002). Silva (1998) defines that the providing of rewards and incentives to enhance organisational performance by improved individual performance as a broad objective of PRP. It links the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s economic returns with the individual, team and organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. PRP is a rewards system that can increase employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, productivity, efforts and earnings (Lazear 2000; Paarsch and Shearer 2000; Parent 1999). According to the American establishment studies, PRP has a positive correlation with the high earnings (Booth and Frank, 1999). People who work for organisations with the PRP system in place are normally higher paid. Furthermore Mitchell et al (1990) found that employees who work these organisations have the opportunity to earn 11% more than those not. Weitzman and Kruse (1990) point out that linking pay to performance, may result in an increase of productivity, adversely it may be unpopular, because of the variable pay rates. PRP assists organisations to encourage employees to give greater effort, as well as serves the purpose of attracting employees with a greater skill and higher drive to achieve (Booth and Frank, 1999). It has an effect on recruitment and retention of staff, as it provides an opportunity for people to receive additional income. Little (1991) believes that pay links cause and effect, therefore employees of PRP systems become committed to the organisation and improve their performance in order to be paid more. However, theory X and theory Y regarding the motivation indicate that the real motivator for the employee is the actual work itself (Fuller-Love, 1997). Moreover, Armstrong (2002) believes that remuneration is not the only motivator, or even an effective motivator. PRP links the individual, team and organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance together. The company sets targets for employees based on its overall objectives. However, PRP encourages employees to focus on their own objective. They seek their short-term fulfilment in order to gain supplementary pay, thus the organisations long-term objective will land up being ignored (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). Performance assessment plays an important role in PRP. Armstrong (2002) said: Ã¢â¬Å"Organisations cannot pay for performance unless they can actually measure itÃ¢â¬ . Assessing the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance fairly, objectively and consistently is a complicated task (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). For the majority of jobs, it is difficult to find a detailed and systemic standard in which to measure with. Furthermore a supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s own attitude may cause unfair assessment and even discrimination (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2002). Hanley and Nguyen (2005) suggest that the company could implement frequent appraisals to solve this problem; however the other point is that this will cost the company more money (Booth and Frank, 1999) Setting clear and specific objectives is a complex task, since every job is different; and PRP puts a great deal more pressure on line managers (Armstrong, 2002) who spend much time and effort on setting these objectives, receiving feedback and assessing performance. PRP also presents a negative effect on team work. In this type of scheme, performance becomes a key factor to assess an employee; therefore some might simply focus on their own performance or even sacrifice team spirit in order to obtain higher individual rewards (Salaman et al, 2006). Moreover DeCkop (1999) points out that PRP could weaken the spirit of cohesion and cooperation, because it is a kind of competitive reward method. Case Study Case 1-Performance Related Pay: What Makes a Successful Scheme? The first case is researched by Aisling Kelly and Kathy Monks who conducted questionnaires on 107 managers who work in a multi-divisional company in Ireland, in order to understand their attitudes after the introduction of PRP to the company. According to the research, PRP is a highly welcomed scheme for this company ith 97% of managers agreeing that it is a good system, and 74% believing that it is also fair. From the data and the interview, we can observe that most of the managers are of the opinion that PRP has a positive effect on both the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s and organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, with 75% of managers believing that PRP creates a general performance improvement. As well as this, the research also indicates a tie between communication and perform ance. The PRP system requires more frequent communication between the supervisor and the employee in order to discuss the particular objectives. These objectives provide a clear description allowing the employees to fully understand their work. This case also reveals that employees who are clear about their workÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and the value of the company will possess a greater desire to accept PRP. And it can be observed that these employees were all clear about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s plan and performance. The managers ranked four main disadvantages of PRP, however. The first is that it is complicated to measure individual performance objectively. Even though 87% of the managers are of the opinion that their work objectives are clear and specific, the performance is still difficult to measure, since this information is simply not adequate enough for evaluating the performance. Second, the interaction concerning the feedback with supervisor is lacking. The third drawback is the PRP systemÃ¢â¬â¢s over-emphasis on the short-term objectives. PRP encourages employees to focus on the short-term performance, which ultimately results in the neglect of the long-term objectives.